Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Executives dominate the legislatures across Europe Introduction Executives dominate the legislatures across Europe IntroductionReference List Related Introduction The legislatures is the Law making body of governance, the executive comprises of the constitutional ruling powers, examples, the President, the Prime Minister, Members of Cabinet and the Speaker of Parliament. The Legislatures, the Executives and the Judiciary. These are all arms of the government and there all work hand in hand to form constitutional elected government. However, there are various systems of governance but the principles are the same. Each country has its own systems of rule, base on the type of government it practices, i.e. the President or the Prime Minister. The Legislature: It is the department with the responsibility for the executing Legislation within parliament, which is made up of the three elements, the Queen, the House of Lords and the House of Commons, in the case of the UK. The Executive; The mechanism for the state that implements and formulates the policy that runs the country. This becomes part of the separation of powers. Its uniqueness in dealing with the distraction, plans, and rules, also focus on plans relevant to the affairs of parliament. The Judiciary; it has the responsible of adjudication of deputies in the common law. As well as relating to the Legislative, it is to set up a smoother administration (Crouch, 2000). In this essay, we are looking at the branch of two institutions of the Executive and the Legislature based on two countries within the European Union Thus, by trying to find out which one dominates across. In contest, of some countries on which this work will comprise of France, and the United Kingdom. In across European states, with the exception of Cyprus and France, the running of lies on the Prime Minister and full presidency in the status in the case of Cyprus.Ã Being the leader of the political party that won the numerical strength in parliament is to form a government. This could in a coalition with other parties; however, the government need to have the confidence of parliament (BALE, 2008). There are constitutional accepted norms and cultures within the parliament and usually the Legislatures have been approved by the Executive. In essences parliamentary constitutions rules permit that the Executive to veto Laws and Legislation before it can be pass into formal rules within the UK or in Europe. In the presidential system of government, the powerful elected president by the people directly by the people becomes both the chief executive and the head of state. While in the parliamentary system of government, the executive in general are not elected but there are chosen Ã¢â¬Å"indirectlyÃ¢â¬ by the elected parliament (legislature). Parliamentary government are common norms in modern Europe, but when the democratisation of the eastern state of Europe, had the chance for change there did choose a new system of government for the move from an old constitution to a new parliamentary system of government (Gallagher, 2006). The constitution of France is currently based on the one adopted in 1958 after the referendum and it is known as the fifth Republic. This constitution allows the President to have all the powers available. He appoints the Prime Minister, who becomes the Head of Government. There are two chambers; made up of the National Assembly and the Senate. However, the National Assembly is the power based, but both houses share the same Legislative authority (Kesseleman, 2010).Ã .Ã The Legislature or the Parliament, wherever enjoy more powers than the Executive did during the Third and Fourth republic, but in the Firth Republic this powers were substantially reduce. The political system faces a lot of criticism for years, thus, because of the imbalance of between the Executive and the Legislature. The 2008 reforms of the constitution were made to address the issues. Nevertheless, since France operates on a semi presidential system of government, in essences parliament lack of independence the legislature is to be enjoying in the full presidential system. As such, the president will not be responsible for parliament, and therefore cannot hold the executive in to account (Kesseleman, 2010). Notwithstanding, the French president still exercise some executive powers (especially emergency) once that goes beyond other Europeans heads of states. One executive power of the president, he appoint the Prime Minister, the Prime Minister and the Cabinet ministers, individually or collectively become responsible to parliament, thus the different between the semi presidential and a full blown president system. In the contraire, it means that the French president can use all the full powers of executive at his disposal, but only if both the prime minister and the cabinet are all from the same party or are in alliance, which is more often the case in France (BALE, 2008). This has been referred to as obliging the president to Ã¢â¬ËcohabitÃ¢â¬â¢ with the prime minister and cabinet made up from political parties of the other side (BALE, 2008). However, the change in presidential elections times in French before the parliamentary the issues of cohabitation may be rarer to be the case. In Western executive during the fifth republic, the president becomes the most powerful, so as much as the president of the United States with the full presidential systems. However, in the case of French the president has limited powers as compare to the United State. In summary the fifth republic presidency is just a near to purely political institution in Western society today (BELL, 2000). Ã¢â¬Å"Executive power in Europe is wielded by the government which are accountable to and rely on the support of parliament. They are led by cabinets comprised of ministers from one or more parties, many of whom retain their parliamentary seats. In theory, they are co-ordinated, if not controlled, by a prime minister whose power- which some argue is on the rise Ã¢â¬â varies between countries but also according to circumstanceÃ¢â¬ (BALE, 2008). In as much Bale try to make his argument about the balance of power of the prime minister will depend on two concept Ã¢â¬Ë the executive in general will need to be facilitated, for example by a strong central state and limited judicial oversight of government actions as well a weak parliament. In addition, the power with the executive itself provides a helpful checklist of factors that will contribute to thisÃ¢â¬â¢ (BALE, 2008). Whereas the second house of the parliament (the House of Lords) had part of its powers taken, for the crea tion of a high court.Ã There are observation across Europe about the weakness in some parliament (legislature), the list of stronger parliament include Germany, Sweden, Italy, Poland, and the Netherland. While as the weaker once are the Czech Republic, the United Kingdom, Spain, and France. The weakness of the French parliament is most refer to EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s weakest legislatures. The unusual executive structure of the France system of government in European context, gives the directly elected president too much to power, meanwhile the executive power is jointly shared by the president and the cabinet (council of ministers), (Gallagher, 2006). Most of the European with the monarchies system likes Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Spain and the UK, the head of state will be the king or Queen. In case of republics it will then be called the president, who would have be elected by the people directly, as it has been seen in Austria, Bulgaria,..Slovenia. Nonetheless, the UK prime minister remains the stronger executive, which has plenty of power inside parliament as the leader of the single majority government that is regarded as the most powerful in Europe. (BALE, 2008). Meanwhile his counterpart in Italy does not have such powers, but it has weak executive, little advantage in the executive and lead a large coalition, most of the time with insecure majority, hence the weakest on the continent. Countries like the Netherlands and Germany thus, would combine stronger executive powers to limited prime ministerial powers with executive. One may see at a glance that European prime minister have less autonomy as compare to that of the US with the full Presidential system. However, that is not case because the President can normally court on winning or not losing votes within the legislature. In the domestic front, the Prime Minister (Executive) has the power to hire and fire a colleague of the cabinet, one power less power for the Dutch and the French Prime ministers. (WARD, 2009). Ã¢â¬Å"The fact that a government defeat on a motion of confidence can lead to fresh election in other countries points to the fact that parliamentÃ¢â¬â¢s right to defeat the executive is, in any case, normally balanced by the executiveÃ¢â¬â¢s right to dissolve (or request the head of state to dissolve) parliament Ã¢â¬â a right that exits in all European democracies outside Norway, Switzerland and FinlandÃ¢â¬ (BALE, 2008). Also in contest, the Legislature across Western Europe is made up of two groups, the Ã¢â¬ËMajoritarianÃ¢â¬â¢ and the Ã¢â¬ËconsensusÃ¢â¬â¢. A political scientist has been with motion of these groups and has made some good comet about them, like as in the majoritarian where we have the UK, Spain, Ireland, Greece and France. Within these countries, the government will set its programs and pursues them with little or no regard to the opposition. As wherein the other groups of parliament in consensus democracies like Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Sweden and other Scandinavian countries. Parliaments here feature criticism that is more constructive and operate sometime in cross party and not inter-party. (Lijphart, 1975). European country with the exception of Switzerland, where parliament elect the government, can be ousted from office by the same parliament, it make it very complicated as to where the power is. However, as in the full presidential system both are elected independently of one another these powers will be balance. We can draw to the discussing on Arend Lijphart, about the distinction made between the two categories of the democratic regime. The Westminster type (Majoritarian) which the United kingdom provide a clear example of Europe, however, Ã countries Greece, Franc, and Malta shows some characteristic of theÃ political system of this category. Within this system, the government need to make such that he has the majority of members of parliament (MPs) to get on with the entire legislature. The opposition see this role to be criticizing the government rather than influence it. One other hand is the second group is the consensus model of Arend LijphartÃ¢â¬â¢s category, which c an be clearly noted within Germany, Switzerland, the Netherlands and Austria. As the name suggests it has a broad consensus in parliament. Moreover, the Belgium cabinets tend to have a good relationship with parliament (Gallagher, 2006). Ã¢â¬Å"Our expectation, then, would be to find that in LijphartÃ¢â¬â¢s majoritatrian-model countries, virtually all relationships between governments and parliaments take place in the interparty mode, with MPs and minsters having a strong party orientation that transcends any sense of Ã¢â¬Å"parliamentÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"governmentÃ¢â¬ as institutions.Ã In contrast, in consensus-model countries we would expect to encounter somewhat greater recourse to the cross-party or non-party mode. With this in mind, we examine the record of European parliament with respect to a number of roles in which they interact with governmentsÃ¢â¬ . Nevertheless, since parliament in Europe is parliamentary and party government have no clear, style to the US system between the executive and the legislature, based on that the conflict between the two branches will be in a lasting conflict between the governments majority and the opposition. Moreover, the powers within parliament across Europe are in contingent on parliamentary arithmetic. (Gallagher, 2006). Based on all these observation it be said that both the Executive and the Legislature due shared some balance of powers across Europe where possible. Nonetheless, there can be no justifications as to say name a country or countries in Europe where one of the two elements dominated by that other. The powers of one parliament at any given time will always depend greatly on the extent on balance of power between parties and the distribution of powers within the government parties. Europeans parliament across Europe have increase over years and all this means that key to the executive dominance can be demonstrated in both the majoritarian and the consensual democracies in Europe. Reference List BALE, T. (2008). European Politics A Comparative lntroduction 2nd Edtion revised and upadted. London: Palgrave Mcmillan . BELL, D. S. (2000). PRESIDENTIAL POWER IN FIFTH REPUBLIC FRANCH. New York: Oxford International . Crouch, C. (2000). After the Euro : shaping institutions for governance in the wake of European monetary union. Oxford : Oxford University Press. Gallagher, M. L. (2006). REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT IN Modern Europe Institutions, Parties, and Governments 4th Edition. New York : McGraw Hill . Kesseleman, M. J. (2010). Introduction to Camparative Politics: Political Challanges and Changing Agendas 5th Edition. Boston: Wadsworth Cengage . Lijphart, A. (1975). The Politics of Accommodation 2nd Edition. New Haven: University of California Press. WARD, I. (2009). A Critical Introduction to European Law 3rd Edition . New York : Cambridge University Press.
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Use a Function as a Parameter in Another Function In Delphi, procedural types (method pointers) allow you to treat procedures and functions as values that can be assigned to variables or passed to other procedures and functions. Heres how to call a function (or procedure) as a parameter of another function (or procedure) : Declare the function (or procedure) that will be used as a parameter. In the example below, this is TFunctionParameter.Define a function that will accept another function as a parameter. In the example below this is DynamicFunction type Ã Ã TFunctionParameter function(const value : integer) : string;...function One(const value : integer) : string;begin Ã Ã result : IntToStr(value) ; end;function Two(const value : integer) : string;begin Ã Ã result : IntToStr(2 * value) ; end;function DynamicFunction(f : TFunctionParameter) : string;begin Ã Ã result : f(2006) ; end;...//Example usage: var Ã Ã s : string; begin Ã Ã s : DynamicFunction(One) ; Ã Ã ShowMessage(s) ; //will display 2006 Ã Ã s : DynamicFunction(Two) ; Ã Ã ShowMessage(s) ; // will display 4012end; Important Notes Of course, you decide on the signature of the TFunctionParameter: whether it is a procedure or a function, how many parameters does it take, etc.If TFunctionParameter is a method (of an instance object) you need to add the words of object to the procedural type name, as in:TFunctionParameter function(const value : integer) : string of object;If you expect nil to be specified as the f parameter, you should test for this using the Assigned function.Fixing the Incompatible type: method pointer and regular procedure
Friday, February 14, 2020
An Important Place in My Life - Assignment Example I like this place because of its eccentric nature and the representation of an undying love that was shown by the Emperor. It is evident that the Emperor wanted to honor his three wives to show the world the importance of marriage (DuTemple, 2003). Although it is located in India, the structure comprises of Persian and Mughal architectural drawings. The building is in the shape a white marble tomb with other amazing features that represent the theme of love. Situated in a cool environment where tourists can easily access it without causing congestion within the city, the place registers many visitors each year. The atmosphere is serene and police officers ensure people do not cause damage to the features in the tomb (Arnold, Comora & Bhushan, 2007). As a result, Taj Mahal is an international heritage that deserves the respect and admiration of all people across the world. The symbolic design and nature of the building manifest the love message that Shah wanted to convey through architecture. Similarly, the white marbles normally change color because of the sunlight or moonlight rays that strike the surface. This marvelous site is a symbol of IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s history that made the construction to receive an honor of being among the world heritage locations. I still appreciate the marble domes and the golden finials around the tombs. The notion of combining different art elements from the Indian and Persian inspirations makes the tombs to have a distinct feature (Arnold, Comora & Bhushan, 2007). The other aspect that makes Taj Mahal my favorite place is that love inspires people to appreciate their partners. The place attracts newly married couples who go there for honeymoon sessions. The moments and stories about that place inspire people to appreciate their loved ones by being creative when presenting their gifts to the partners (DuTemple, 2003).Ã
Saturday, February 1, 2020
Art Museum & Gallery Studies, Art Curatorship ( curatoring for an exhibition ) - Essay Example Ã¢â¬Å"Front Door, Back GateÃ¢â¬ took "domesticity" as its theme, complimenting an on-going Jeannie Finaley exhibit at the Hatton Gallery, a challenging yearly endeavour by students from University of Newcastle upon Tyne. The exhibit reflects the spaces and limitations of domestic life as well as domesticity as a theme for art. The group chose interior as Ã¢â¬Å"Front DoorÃ¢â¬ and exterior as Ã¢â¬Å"Back GateÃ¢â¬ ; which showcases HattonÃ¢â¬â¢s historical collection along with other works on loan. We used complementary home and garden furniture to create a welcoming homelike atmosphere. Traditional gallery displays are very different from the way we display art in our homes. Domesticating the gallery provides a refreshing experience for visitors and shows domestic art and artworks on that theme in a new context. The vivid Ã¢â¬Å"Red TableÃ¢â¬ by Patrick Heron reflects love and solitude as well as suggesting lifestyle and joie de vivre. Heron has an affinity for vivid, exotic and captivating reds in this abstract still life. The interior space shows a table set for one, giving a sense of solitude, but also loneliness. It echoes survival in that, even when alone, we still set the table. Domestic traditions have survival value too. The composition is inspired by forms and patterns extracted from domestic surroundings, activating the space around the objects, enlarging upon the subject to encompass the whole of domestic reality, or bringing the whole world in and simplifying existence down to a table set for one. Simplicity adds innocence and invites the mind to invent the story. It is provocative in the use of colour and contrast, yet mysterious as shapes are obscured while details jump out like questions. Leon MauriceÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"NetÃ¢â¬ photograph shows a sense of belonging. Likewise, the Ã¢â¬Å"NetÃ¢â¬ curtain photograph reflects a sense of place with a hint of voyeurism: a glimpse through a net curtain looking out onto a blurred view, creating a visual link
Friday, January 24, 2020
Balancing Politics and Pedagogy Thesis: Research over the past thirty years shows conflicting evidence for or against bilingual education leading to a heated debate between educators and politicians with bilingual education becoming a scapegoat for a number of educational issues, perhaps hiding the real causes of Hispanic difficulties from the critics. Proposition 227, the so-called "English for Children" law, abolished thirty years of bilingual education in California in June, 1998, forcing students who are not fluent in English into all-English classes in all subjects all the time. Bilingual education, according to Krashen, is the target of critics who list a number of objections (1). Newspapers and TV are often against bilingual education. They say that bilingual education is not functioning, while students learn English very well without it. They also say that the majority of parents and teachers are not in favor of it. Another argument is that bilingual education is only for Spanish speakers and not for those who have different writing systems. In addition, it is true that there are not enough teachers for bilingual education (1). Furthermore, the dropout rate of Hispanic children in the U.S. is still high even after thirty years of efforts. Research of the past thirty years shows no justification for bilingual education, clai ms Porter (28). However, it may be a fallacy to conclude that bilingual education is not working. Bilingual education has become a scapegoat for a number of educational issues, perhaps hiding the real causes of Hispanic difficulties from the critics. The issue of bilingual education is not new. In fact, its history in the U.S. has vacillated between acceptance and rejection. During the nineteenth century, instruction was given in a wide variety of foreign languages, such as German, Polish, Italian, Dutch or any other language that parents demanded. Between 1897 and 1915, thirteen states changed their policies to requiring English instruction in basic subjects such as math, science, and geography from fears of a so-called "babel of tongues" (Zimmerman 39). By the end of World War I, thirty-seven states had limited foreign language instruction including explicit prohibitions on German in favor of "100 percent Americanism" (39). After the war, public schools became open to a wide range of foreign language instruction; however, in fact, only 20 percent of high school students were taught in any non-English language class by 1949. Immigrant parents, says Zimmerman, wanted their children to learn English as a vehicle of social mobility in America instead of taking courses in their native languages (39).
Thursday, January 16, 2020
The late 19th century produced a myriad of successful authors, poets and play-writes that often incorporated the local customs, traditions and expectations of the time (and perhaps their own experiences) into their work. A fact of the times, even into early 20th century, is that women were not equal to men and the expectations of women were not equal as well. This point will be illustrated by comparative analysis of two separate forms of literature: Tristan BernardÃ¢â¬â¢s humorous play IÃ¢â¬â¢m Going! A Comedy in One Act, and Kate ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s short story Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an Hour. Ã¢â¬ Authors can use plays, stories or poems to bring us into their world, and through imagination we can connect with them, if only briefly, and enjoy their point of view and what they are trying to convey. Through their writing, they are actually giving us a look at history and through that snapshot of time we can see the differences between societyÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations then and now. Tristan BernardÃ¢â¬â¢s (1866-1947) IÃ¢â¬â¢m Going! A Comedy in One Act (1915), (Clugston, 2010a), is a play set in Paris about a married couple (Henri and Jeanne) who on a Sunday morning are trying to decide how they are going to spend their day. Henri wants to go to the races but he wants Jeanne to stay home, though she wants to go with him, or to see her friend (Clugston, 2010a). The theme of the play is one of distrust and manipulation, as each truly wants to spend the day on their own, and at the end of the play that is exactly what they do (Clugston, 2010a). See more: Analysis of Starbucks coffee company employees essay In this play, Bernard uses the setting of the stage and symbolism to convey to the audience a sense of separate desires of the couple starting with the opening scene when Henri and Jeanne enter and sit on opposite sides of the room (Clugston, 2010a). Bernard, in fact, used symbolism in many of his works, and exploited the psychoanalytical technique to draw his dramas together (Degasse, 2008). What one really has to look through the mist to see, however, is how Bernard incorporates societyÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations (or double standard) of women inÃ Paris (and throughout the world, really), though in a humorous and dramatic style, into the play. One has to keep in mind that the male audience of that time probably had the same attitude and beliefs as the character Henri, and though it may have been viewed as right or wrong, women were expected to be subservient and obedient while the male was allowed further freedoms. Henri wants to goes to the races alone, and ultimately, that is what he does while Jeanne stays home, but let us look deeper at the play and uncover the nuances that show the inequality of the times and how Bernard conveys that conviction. After Henri and JeanneÃ¢â¬â¢s initial entrance and they set down, the first thing that happens is Henri makes a comment about how every Sunday the weather is nice until noon, then its cloudy and rainy or there is an advancing thunderstorm (Clugston, 2010a). This verbal observation of the weather may be a metaphor and actually provide two meanings; one is that it is in fact rainy and Henri is setting a negative atmosphere for Jeanne who expects him to take her out for the day, and the other could be the weekly Sunday dilemma of Henri trying to go to the races without Jeanne. The rainy, or soon to be, day also sets a tone of despair, but provides Henri with an excuse to go to the races alone and save him and his wife the additional cost of a carriage in order to avoid the rain, and additional cost of a ladies ticket (Clugston, 2010a). In truth, it is just a manipulation of the circumstances for Henri to try to dissuade Jeanne in joining him at the races (Clugston, 2010a). Then in BernardÃ¢â¬â¢s IÃ¢â¬â¢m Going, A Comedy in One Act (1915), Henri recommends a promenade (a walk) with his wife instead of accompanying him to the races and Jeanne responds Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, up the Champs-Elysees together! And have you looking daggers at me all the time! Whenever I do go with you, youÃ¢â¬â¢re always making disagreeable remarks. Ã¢â¬ Henri responds with Ã¢â¬Å"Because you are in a bad humor Ã¢â¬â youÃ¢â¬â¢ll never give me your arm. Ã¢â¬ (Jeanne called him on his bluff, because he really doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to take a walk either), (cited in Clugston, 2010a, 1. 1. 26-29). She has no real intention of going for a walk with him as she did not intend to go to the races, but does not want to see him go alone to the races and enjoy himself alone, either. This is another example of manipulation; her manipulating him and vice versa, and starts the back and forth farce of both supposedly wanting to spend the day together when they really do not (Clugston, 2010a). When Jeanne decides Henri can go to the races alone because she intends to go see a friend, Henri decides he will stay at home and not go to the races (Clugston, 2010a). This is an obvious representation of the husband not trusting the wife, and even though she has given sanction to him to proceed, he abandons all intentions to leave because of his suspicion of her meeting with her friend and also perhaps meeting another man. The deception between both characters is obvious at this point in the play but not obviously clear as to why. Though we know by this point that HenriÃ¢â¬â¢s intention has always been to go to the races alone, it is not yet clear why Jeanne reacts the way she does. Is it that she is abused, or expected to stay home alone while Henri goes to the races, or does she have her own nefarious agenda, or both? Finally, and after much back and forth ruse of both characters, Jeanne decides to stay at home alone and lets Henri leave for the races alone, only to delight in the fact that she can spend her afternoon working on hats and enjoying chocolate at home as detailed immediately after Henri departs for the races in BernardÃ¢â¬â¢s IÃ¢â¬â¢m Going! A Comedy in One Act (1915), (cited by Clugston, 2010a, 1. 1. 81-185): (Waits for a moment, listens, and hears the outer door close, then rises, and goes to the door at the back. She speaks to someone off-stage) Marie, donÃ¢â¬â¢t go before you get me a large cup of chocolate. Bring two rolls, too. Oh, and go at once to my room and bring me my box of ribbons and those old hats. (She comes down- stage, and says beaming) What fun IÃ¢â¬â¢ll have trimming hats! Throughout this play Jeanne is expected by Henri to stay at home while he enjoys the afternoon alone, and despite the opposition Jeanne gives him, she eventually desists and Henri has his way while she is left at home. This is an excellent example of how women were treated by their husbands then as compared to how most men and women interact today. There was probably no other recourse for the character Jeanne but to resolve herself to some enjoyment at home with her hats, and chocolate, and rolls. It could be argued that that is what she wanted all along, that she only wanted a reassurance that her husband loved her, but probably not, more than likely she simply had no other choice than to occupy her Sunday alone as best as she could and succumb to her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s wishes. There stands some ambiguity as to whether they really love each other, or if Jeanne is simply stuck and cannot get out of the situation she is in. Sixteen years earlier than the play by Tristan Bernard discussed above, but in the same era of male dominance, Kate Chopin (1850-1904) wrote several short stories and novels which also depict the sexist plight of women in her time and the choices they had to endure in order to survive, including quite possibly domestic violence in a time when no recourse was available (Tate, 2000). Unlike Bernard, who was a renowned writer at the age of 25, Chopin was considered a feminist, and as a young widow who had to raise six children alone when she lost her husband to swamp fever, she eventually succeeded by turning to writing and was widely accepted in the southern United States literary circle (Tucker, 1996). Much of her writing incorporates her own life experiences and tribulations, such as Ã¢â¬Å"The Awakening,Ã¢â¬ (1899) which depicts a 19th century woman who is adulterous, but maintains her strength and individuality despite of what society thinks about her (Tucker, 1996). It is of little doubt that Kate Chopin was of the same opinion and character of many of those characters in her stories. According to Leary (1968), much of her writing Ã¢â¬Å"Speaks of marital unhappiness and of dangers which lie in wait for people who do as they want to do without concern for other peopleÃ¢â¬ (p. 60). Kate ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an HourÃ¢â¬ (1894), (Clugston, 2010b), is written clearly and succinctly leaving little room for ambiguity or misinterpretation. ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s direct style of writing draws the reader in quickly and gives immediate insight to what is happening and what the feelings of the characters are, thus increasing the understanding of what the author is trying to convey. Like Bernard, Chopin uses symbolism and tone to enhance the (in this case) imaginary setting to further the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s experience. Unlike Bernard, ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s form was short stories and novels instead of plays to be performed in front of live audiences. It is also important to look at Kate Chopin from a biographical/historical perspective to realize Chopin has also used life experiences as a basis for some of her characters: in this story Mr. Mallard has reportedly been killed in a train accident, while in reality Kate ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s father really was killed in a train accident (Tucker, 1996). According to Seyersted, (cited in Kelly, 1994, p. 332), after critiquing Ã¢â¬Å"Athenaise,Ã¢â¬ he states that Ã¢â¬Å"In spite of its Ã¢â¬Ëhappy ending,Ã¢â¬â¢ this tale is, on a deeper level, a protest against womanÃ¢â¬â¢s condition. Seyersted is undoubtedly referring to womenÃ¢â¬â¢s struggle at that time for equality with men. Closer comparison of this story with BernardÃ¢â¬â¢s play will bring to the surface many similarities of the uphill struggle women of this era endured and how it is depicted and evident in our literature. In ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an Hour,Ã¢â¬ the main character, Mrs. Mallard receives word at home that her Husband had been killed in a train accident, she was distraught and crying, and when this subsided, she retires alone to a large armchair facing an open window in her room (Clugston, 2010b). This initial reaction to her loss seems fairly normal up to this point in the story, but then the Narrator describes what Mrs. Mallard sees, smells and hears from the open window, using symbolism and tone to describe a renewal in life, as described in ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Story of an Hour,Ã¢â¬ (cited by Clugston, 2010b, para. 5): She could see in the open square before her house the tops of trees that were all aquiver with the new spring life. The delicious breath of rain was in the air. In the street below a peddler was crying his wares. The notes of a distant song which some one was singing reached her faintly, and countless sparrows were twittering in the eaves. As the story unfolds, Mrs. Mallard feels an emotion coming to her which she initially cannot identify, but ultimately does identify it; it is relief and a sense of a newfound freedom (Clugston, 2010). But why would she feel this way now unless she felt oppressed or abused when her husband was alive? A better description of what Mrs. Mallard had endured under her HusbandÃ¢â¬â¢s rule and what she imagined the future to hold is stated in the story: Ã¢â¬Å"There would be no powerful will bending hers in that blind persistence with which men and women believe they have a right to impose a private will upon a fellow-creatureÃ¢â¬ (cited in Clugston, 2010b, para. 14). The Author is speaking to the reader about this issue in 1894, a very bold and controversial statement for a time in which women were not expected to behave this way. Nearing the end of the story Mrs. Mallard finally accepts her newfound freedom and rejoices to herself Ã¢â¬Å"Free! Body and soul free! Ã¢â¬ (cited in Clugston, 2010b, para. 19), only to be persuaded out of her room by her sister and lead downstairs just as her husband comes through the front door, he was in fact not dead after all (Clugston, 2010). Mrs. Mallard died upon seeing her husband though the doctors said it was heart disease (earlier in the story it does mention she had a weak heart), (Clugston, 2010). One has to wonder though, did Mrs. Mallard die from heart disease or is this another symbol the Author uses to express Mrs. Mallard (or any oppressed woman) would rather die than give up her freedom and individuality? Tristan BernardÃ¢â¬â¢s IÃ¢â¬â¢m Going! A Comedy in One Act is a play written by a man in France sixteen years after Kate ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of an Hour,Ã¢â¬ which is a short story written by a woman in the United States. Though there are differences in the Authors, origin, form, audience or reader, some compelling similarities exist; the time they were written (1915 & 1894, respectively), that both Authors incorporate issues of the time into their work, and perhaps most importantly, they both display the subservient, oppressive place which women are expected to take in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
Stress amid parents of children diagnosed with ASD Madiha Singapuri Nova Southeastern University Dr. Eric Thompson PYCL 507: Research and Evaluation for Counselors. Abstract Having a child given a diagnosis of an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a very stressful event for parents. It is imperative to understand that there is much that can be done for both parent and the child. From the current literature we know that parents of children diagnosed with autism worry about many things like lifetime dependency to family dissonance. We know that these parents are distressed and angry, the parents of children with more unusual behaviors feel a lot more stressed than the parents of children with fewer unusual behaviors. However, having a strategy to approach it correctly and to get the best possible help for your child is probably the most important step, one can take to relieve stress and to aid the childÃ¢â¬â¢s development. Introduction The feelings a parent faces when diagnosed with an autistic child can only be described as guilt, pain, panic and disbelief. Where the dreams of their child surviving all the years of educational schooling and therapy and becoming an independent adult start fading; yet there are success stories of those who did. The Internet has made it possible for parents to have access to a great deal of information about treatment for ASD. Unfortunately, much of the information is not based on solid scientific evidence that demonstrates